What is casting? Introduction to six common casting types and their processes

7 December, 2023

What is casting?

Casting is a manufacturing process used to produce parts, components, or products made of metal or other materials. The process typically involves pouring molten metal or other materials into a specific shaped mold and allowing it to cool and solidify, creating objects of various shapes and sizes required for different metals or alloys. Casting can be utilized for manufacturing anything from small-scale components to large mechanical parts

Types of Casting

Castings can be categorized into several types, some of the main ones include:

Sand Casting

Sand casting, also known as sand mold casting or sand casting, is one of the oldest and most common casting methods. It involves using a mixture of sand and a bonding agent to create molds for shaping metal products. Typically used for producing medium to large-sized components, sand casting offers advantages such as low cost and versatility. It is suitable for various metals and alloys, allows for the production of intricate shapes, and boasts a fast production rate. However, drawbacks include the need to remake molds after use and the possibility of rough surfaces that may require subsequent finishing.

Sand Casting Process:

  • Mold Making:Creating sand molds according to the shape and size requirements of the desired product.
  • Model Shaping:Dividing the mold into two parts and placing the model between them to create a complete model.
  • Metal pouring: Pouring molten metal into the mold to completely fill the entire model.
  • Metal Pouring:Pouring molten metal into the mold to fill the entire model.
  • Removing the Mold:Dismantling the sand mold to retrieve the finished metal product.
  • Post-processing:Carrying out cleaning, refining, and other necessary machining processes to meet the final requirements and specifications.

Lost Wax Casting

Lost wax casting, also known as investment casting, involves creating a wax model that's used to create a mold. The wax is melted or vaporized from the mold, leaving a cavity to be filled with metal to form the final casting. This method is used for intricate and precise parts in aerospace, medical devices, jewelry, and other industries requiring high precision. Precision cast parts have smooth surfaces and often need no further machining, but this process is costlier and more intricate."

The process of lost wax casting.

  • Creating wax patterns:Using specialized wax material to produce the required intricate models.
  • Assembling the models:Placing the wax patterns into the mold and assembling them to form a complete mold.
  • De-waxing:Placing the mold in a high-temperature environment to melt or evaporate the wax models, creating cavities
  • Metal injection:Pouring molten metal into the cavities, filling the mold space.
  • Cooling and solidification:Allowing the metal to cool and solidify, then removing the castings.
  • Post-processing:Performing cleaning, surface treatments, and other necessary processes to meet final specifications.

Die Casting

Die casting, also known as pressure casting, is a common method for shaping metals like aluminum, zinc, or magnesium under high pressure into specific shapes. It's often used for high-volume production, providing fast production speeds, high-density products, smooth surfaces, and precise dimensions. However, its drawbacks include high equipment costs and time-consuming mold production.

The die casting process.

  • Preparing the Mold:Creating high-pressure-resistant molds typically made from steel or other metals.
  • Heat the metal: Heating the metal to its molten state.
  • Filling the Mold: Injecting the molten metal into the die casting machine and using high pressure to fill the metal into the mold cavity.
  • Cooling and Solidification: Allowing the metal to cool and solidify within the mold, then opening the mold to remove the casting.
  • Post-processing: Conducting necessary machining and surface treatments to meet product specifications.

Permanent Mold Casting

Permanent Mold Casting, also known as permanent molding or metal mold casting, utilizes durable steel or aluminum molds capable of withstanding high temperatures. It offers advantages such as producing high-precision, smooth-surfaced products. Unlike die casting, molds in this method can be reused multiple times, making it suitable for high-precision and large quantity production. However, the production cost for creating metal molds is higher, and the production rate is comparatively slower.

Permanent Mold Casting process

  • Making metal molds: Creating metal molds according to product requirements, typically using durable steel or aluminum materials.
  • Preheating the mold: Heating the metal mold to the appropriate temperature.
  • Metal injection: Pouring molten metal into the metal mold to fill the mold cavity.
  • Cooling and solidification: Allowing the metal to cool and solidify within the mold, then opening the mold to remove the casting.
  • Post-processing: Conducting necessary cleaning, refining, and other machining processes to meet the final product requirements.

Centrifugal Casting

Centrifugal casting involves pouring molten metal into a rotating mold to create cylindrical or disc-shaped parts like wheels, pipes, or pressure vessels. It offers high product density, uniform internal structure, and good accuracy. However, it's less suitable for complex shapes and involves higher equipment investment costs.

Centrifugal Casting Process

  • Post-processing: Conducting necessary cleaning, refining, and other machining processes to meet the final product requirements.
  • Heat the metal: Heating the metal to its molten state.
  • Initiating rotation: Initiating high-speed rotation of the mold.
  • Metal injection: Pouring molten metal through the center, utilizing centrifugal force to fill the entire mold cavity.
  • Cooling and solidification: After the metal cools and solidifies, stopping the rotation and removing the formed product.
  • Post-processing: Conducting necessary cleaning, refining, and other machining processes to meet the final product requirements.

Continuous Casting

Continuous casting is a method used to create metal components by continuously pouring molten metal into molds or cooling areas. This results in the continuous solidification of the metal into long bars or sheet-like shapes, such as steel billets or aluminum bars. It offers high production efficiency and stable product quality but requires substantial equipment and energy consumption.

Continuous Casting Process

  • Prepare the cooling area: Setting up an appropriate cooling area or molds.
  • Heat the metal: Heating the metal to its molten state.
  • Injecting or pouring the metal: Continuously pouring the molten metal into the cooling area or molds.
  • Cooling and solidification: Allowing the metal to cool and solidify, forming long bars or sheet-like castings.
  • Cutting or shaping: Carrying out cutting or shaping processes as needed to meet the final requirements for size and shape.

Comparison of Pros and Cons of Six Casting Methods

Casting methods Advantages DisadvantagesApplications
Sand Casting
  1. Lower cost.
  2. Production speed is fast.
  3. Suitable for various metals and complex shapes.
  1. The resulting parts may have rough surfaces that require subsequent finishing.
  2. The molds need to be remade after use.
Automobile manufacturing, mechanical parts production, industrial product manufacturing
Lost Wax Casting
  1. Suitable for manufacturing parts with complex shapes.
  2. The manufactured parts have smooth surfaces.
  1. The cost of making molds is high.
  2. The manufacturing process is complex.
Aerospace, medical equipment, art manufacturing
Die Casting
  1. Production speed is fast.
  2. The product has high density and smooth surface.
  1. Equipment investment costs are high.
  2. Mold production costs are high.
Automobile manufacturing, electronic products, industrial manufacturing
Permanent Mold Casting
  1. The products have high precision.
  2. The mold has a long service life.
  1. Mold cost is high.
  2. Production speed is slow.
Automotive engine parts, mechanical parts, copper alloy parts
Centrifugal CastingProduct density is uniform and high precision
  1. Not good for complex shapes.
  2. Equipment costs are high.
Wheel manufacturing, pipe manufacturing, pressure vessel manufacturing
Continuous Casting
  1. high productivity.
  2. Product quality is stable.
  1. Equipment and energy consumption are large.
  2. Restricted on shape.
Steel manufacturing, building materials manufacturing, vehicle manufacturing

Each of the above six casting methods has advantages and limitations. Choosing the appropriate method usually depends on the shape, size, quantity and material of the parts required. If you need to cast parts, please feel free to Contact!


Qiao Fu Shen is committed to providing you with products that exceed the industry standards in casting. Our high-quality molds are made from various materials, such as wood, plastic, polystyrene, or metal, depending on your needs. Furthermore, we take pride in offering a wide range of casting sizes and patterns.  

We serve numerous industries both domestically and internationally, including but not limited to mechanical hardware parts, tooling machine parts, aerospace components, bicycle parts, and automotive parts. Whether you are looking for specific items or have general inquiries, Qiao Fu Shen 's experienced team is always ready to assist you. We are proud to be one of the most trusted casting companies.

We look forward to speaking with you! Simply fill out the straightforward form below, and our knowledgeable consultants will contact you soon.

本站採用 reCAPTCHA 保護機制 隱私權條款 & 條款